Common bunt treatment methods Part 1: Brush cleaning So, when you have equipment like this normally there will get suck out air here or in the bottom that means that the air will go around the drum, so the air not go through the drum that is why I added these sides to force the airstream through the drum. So, the idea is that you treat the seed while you are putting a lot of air through the machine to get rid of all the spores. The brushes release the spores, and the air will remove them. And the air is the important thing. A lot of air. As much as possible. So, that is why I had these small things to force the airstream through the drum. This is typically a machine that you can co-own. Of course. If you are seed community, yes yeah. I rent one, once a year. If you have that possibility, yes. Yes, but invest you in one or whatever you could have one in common to share it, of course. Yeah, then of course it depends how much seed you put in, you can control how hard it will work, ow much you open. I have some seed here. Well, I should have had a funnel. You add just dry seeds? Yes, dry seed, yes. Yes, only dry seed, yes. You can also instead – I did not mention that – instead of having this one you can also wash it in water. It is very effective. You can really get rid of most of the spores, 99% of the spores with water. But then you need to dry it. So, if you have sun like this, and you have only a hundred kilo of seed, then that is fine. You need to have a lot of water. Really a lot. It is best if you have a river or a sea to, because you need really to dilute the water to get rid of it, but it is very effective. And also I put the seed lot directly from the combine harvester because then all the bunt balls will float, and you can get rid of them by water. So water is a very good treatment, even cold water. But you need to dry it afterwards. So, this is in order to avoid drying. It is just to show that it is working and that how much to open. It is not infected seeds, so it does not work anyway. I go that way. But can you do this with spelt, or grains with husk on them? Yes, of course if you have an infected spelt lot, most of the spores will be on the surface of the husk on the healthy seed. And by brushing them you can get rid of many of these spores. But the brush will actively also dehull, and this can be used for dehulling spelt also. But it will not be as effective as with seed, but it will help. You said that this machine isn’t actually made for this purpose, it’s made for other purpose. Yes. Yeah, grass seed or whatever. Or oat to bray. And it is also very good for barley, particularly winter barley where you have this awn that normally do not break at the right place, so you can put it through this, and have a nice thing. They also use it for malt, malting barley, to have improved germination and also to get a more uniform seed lot. How come that the grains get improved germination when it’s been running through this machine, I mean it should damage, you think that should damage the seed lot. Yeah, but actually a little stratification of the seed will normally improve germination But if it is too much, you will harm it. But a little stratification of seed is often beneficial for germination. What’s the mechanism behind that? Yeah, you make small holes in the bran, and then water will easier imbibe. So you can reduce … time by doing that. Yes, yes. So for your malting plant you should consider this, yes. But do you think it’s a good idea to do that with all your seeds? Even if you don’t have this bunt. Yes. But it’s a good thing to do it with all seeds. Yes. Yes. Because the threshold and the detection level of bunt is almost the same. So, even you say that the seed has been analysed, we do not have spores, maybe you have spores just below the detection level. So, this treatment will remove the spores that are on your seed, yes. I would recommend it to use it on all seeds. If you have the machine, I will use it on all seed. And I will also use it before putting it into the mill, because you will also remove a lot of dust and other fungal diseases, I mean Fusarium, many of these Penicillinum. They are all on the seed surface, so if you brush them before going to the mill, you will reduce the mycotoxins in the flour. Part 2: Vinegar treatment For the vinegar treatment and Tilliko or whatever of course if you have a seed plant then you have proper equipment for it, but for home saved seed I just use a cement drum like this. I would normally use a duster. I do not have a duster here, so. But this is vinegar from the kitchen. Can you hear that it changes the sound? Because it gets humid. So it sticks a little to the fingers. This means this is about 30 ml, so this is too much. Sorry about that. You can measure it before you throw it in. But you should feel how much it is, and this is too much. It should be humid but not wet. So, if it is like this like I think it needs drying. So then you just put it on the floor. And you remember what I said, 25 seconds. Yeah. This is. Ah, it will survive, but this is slightly too much. But you can feel it, and you can hear it. Now it changes the sound, it is not dry seed, now it is humid seed, then you can stop the treatment. And the vinegar – as I said – it is evaporating, it is either going into the seed, or it is evaporating. So, if it is like this like I think it needs drying. So then you just put it on the floor. So, it will all be gone. After evaporation there is nothing left. It is not a salt. It is not some other acid I tried also, the citric acid. Ah, the citric acid that you can control more precisely, but you don’t remove it afterwards, because it is getting salty. So, it will be a chemical on the seed surface, and that will harm germination. But this will evaporate, and then the problem is solved.